The term Cro-Magnon has been derived from the locality of the same name in les Eyzies, France, where remains of five human skeletons were discovered. The finds consist of skeletons of two adult men, one woman, an infant and an old man.
The first discovery was made by M. Louis Lartet in 1868. After that several discoveries were made in different parts of Europe, which reveal widespread existence of this type of man in Europe. The remains of this type have been discovered from an upper layer of the Grimaldi cave.
Geologically they belong to late Pleistocene period and later than the Grimaldi hom sapiens.
The associated implements show that they flourished in Aurignacian time of the Upper Paleolithic period. They produced masterfully worked bone and stone tools of Aurignacian time. They were also responsible for the beautiful cave paintings, sculptures, ivory and stone statuettes of female figure and similar other artistic objects found in different regions of Europe.
4. Woolly Rhinoceros:
The animal bones found in the deposits of Upper palaeolithic time are of mammoth, cave bear, woolly rhinoceros, an indication of glacial climate. These animals were replaced by other types of fauna towards the later part, as the climate generally became dryer and warmer.
1. The skull is large and massive. It is very long (20.3 cm) in relation to its breadth (15.0 cm) and thus the skull is dolichocephalic.
2. The vault is high (hypsicephalic).
3. The cranial capacity is estimated at 1660 cc by Keith and 1590 cc by Boule.
4. The parietal tuberosities are placed laterally and are markedly projecting making the contour of the cranium pentagonal.
5. The forehead is broad and moderately high.
6. Supraorbital ridges are low and wide.
7. The occiput is projecting notably and it is flattened at the parieto occipital region.
8. The face is very broad, short and flat.
9. Thus the long, narrow head is associated with short, broad, flat face—a disharmonious combination.
10. The orbits are rectangular in form.
11. The breadth is much greater than height.
12. The zygomatic region is strong, large and prominent.
13. The nose is long and narrow-leptorrhine.
14. The nasal bones are high.
15. The maxillary regions show marked prognathism.
16. The palate, which is moderately projected, is shallow and somewhat narrow.
17. The lower jaw is strong but not very massive.
18. The ascending ramii are not very wide.
19. The sigmoid notch is fairly deep.
20. A well marked chin is present.
21. The femur, which is platymeric is strongly bowed out and it possesses a well-developed linea aspera.
22. The tibia is platynemic, that is, flat from side to side.
23. The long bones suggest an athletic physique with strong muscles and a tall stature.
24. The height is estimated at 168.4 cm, (5’6 V*”) but according to Boule it was 182 cm (5? 11.6)
25. As regards limb proportions the leg is long as compared with the thigh, and the forearm long in relation to arm.
26. According to some, this is a Negroid proportion.