(3) Reduction or elimination of wastage and stagnation.
(4) Better image.
These four components of HRD can be schematically presented as follows (Rao, 1986).
HRD can be implemented in such a manner that it is beneficial both to the individual and to the institution. For this, it should foster a sense of belongingness among employees.
This feeling develops when an institution provides for their basic needs as well as for their higher needs through appropriate management styles and systems. Employees’ commitment can be developed and enhanced by providing opportunities for self-fulfillment in one’s work.
A manager’s job is to provide a positive, motivating work climate which would ensure development and utilization of the capabilities of subordinates.
However, the HRD system is not a formula that can be applied with mathematical precision and blindness to every organization in the same manner.
The size of the institution, its state of growth, its organizational culture, the system of selecting, training and appraising personnel, the state of technology are some of the factors that will influence human resource development in an institution.
While the schematic presentation of Rao (1986) describes institutional effectiveness dimension, it is equally important to describe essential criteria for career development of individuals. These include:
(a) An ability to innovate in one’s field of specialization.
(b) An ability to lead people in the achievement of objectives.
(c) Interacting positively with people as a team member.
(d) A commitment to excellence and healthy competition.
(e) Sensitivity to the environment and social reality.
(f) Ethics and honesty in functioning.