The Commission has recommended that university education should be made available to only brilliant students; others should switch over to vocational careers after the 10 + 2 stage. The UGC Amendment Act, 1968, lays down that no grants will be made to those universities which are set up without its sanction.
2. The Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR):
The CSIR with its network of laboratories and research institutes is a major instrument of scientific and industrial research in universities and other centres of learning.
The role of the council is associated with the work relating to natural resources survey, roads, buildings, public utility services like sanitation, water supply, waste disposal industries and research on engineering related to environment management.
3. Wardha Scheme of Education:
The scheme has two purposes: 1. It solves the problems of limited funds by making education self-supporting; 2. It makes the students realise the dignity of labour from a very early age. According to this scheme, children would learn some useful handicrafts along with reading, writing and simple arithmetic.
The articles made by them would be sold by the government and so the expenses of running these schools would be partially met. Education, according to this scheme, is not merely theoretical or bookish, it is practical and it solves the needs of the local areas.
It develops character and creates love for labour. It is free and compulsory, and it solves to a great extent the problem of unemployment. The basis of this scheme is that education in the lower stages should be made to pay for itself by the sale of articles produced by the pupils.
4. Social Education:
It aims at not only teaching the three R’s, but also training for fuller and more prosperous life. Students would become better and useful citizens, and it would create in them an enthusiasm for public cause. Full education is encouraged; literacy drives are undertaken and education melas are held to arouse interest in education.
Extensive use of audio-visual aids, radio-sets, cinema vans, films, etc, is being made in popularising social education. Several state governments have introduced music and dramatic entertainments as an integral part of social education.
The concept of social education embodies a five-point programme dealing with provisions of (a) literacy, (b) knowledge of the rules of health and hygiene, (c) training for the improvement of the adult’s economic status, (d) sense of civic consciousness and (e) healthy forms of recreation. The outstanding agencies of social education are (i) audio-visual education, (ii) education of the handicapped, and (iii) adult education.
5. Audio-Visual Education:
The value of audio-visual education is being gradually realised for the purpose of imparting instructions in school. Instead of laying stress on the three R’s (Reading, Writing and Arithmetic) the three L’s (Look, Listen and Learn) have been brought into prominence.
Social education work in India is being supplemented by radio-sets, television, cinema vans, films, libraries, study kits, etc. A permanent effect is left on children’s mind and they learn more quickly by the system.
6. Basic Education:
The Avadi Session of the Congress passed a resolution favouring introduction of Basic Education. It meant that rural education should have a bias towards basic crafts like agriculture, spinning, weaving, carpentry, leather work, domestic crafts, etc.
It is proposed to transform all schools into basic ones. Basic education, according to Mahatma Gandhi, is an education for life and what is more, an education through life aimed at creating eventually a social order free from exploitation and violence. It is proposed to introduce compulsory free basic education for all children between the ages of 6 and 11 in rural areas.