2. Stone Hammer Techniques:
This was the most common method adopted by prehistoric man this the stone hammer hits the stone in a swinging blow, maximum amount of force enters the stone in a rather controlled manner.
It results in a great deal of shattering effect the bulb is pronounced and has a fairly large outer mergence. Sometimes this technique is also referred to as flaking technique.
3. Cylinder Hammer Technique:
Is with unusually shallow and elongated flake scars were discovered in prehistoric debris, key after experimenting with many kinds of hammers declared that such flaking could be effected by using a hollow bone or antler or a wooden hammer.
On the face of it this do might appear to be improbable, but only experimentation can demonstrate how well can be removed by this technique. The greatest advantage of using these organic hammers is property of absorbing the reaction of force thus totally eliminating the shattering effect of the bulb produced in this kind of scars is diffused and the flake scars have a more or less el running boundary ridge.
4. Pressure Technique:
Some Paleolithic tools like the upper Silurian points carry fine shallow flaking on the surface and these were taken to have been produced by what is described as pressure flaking technique.
In this technique the media (puncher) transmitting the force keeps in contact with the core during the process the force is in action. This prevents radiation of the force waves in radial direction it the point of impact. (In most of the percussion techniques the hammer swings off after imparting the force on the core. Left to itself, the force, therefore, tends to radiate in the direction of the blow. The fan shaped flakes detached in free flaking technique are a good example to demonstrate this point).
As a result pressure flaking technique is quite suitable in the removal of elongated blades. Usually, it is used for delicate retouching but in blade manufacture it is one of the essential steps of fabrication.
5. Resolved Technique:
As the name signifies the flake scars produced by this technique are shaped like a step. Here the hammer directs the force inside the thicker part of the stone in contradistinction to force directed outwards in the case of free flaking technique.
This restricts the force from travelling over the entire thickness of the stone and as such the force gets spent up after travelling half way through. As a result of this a crack develops on the surface of the stone along the periphery of the termination of the force.
This results in a vertical cleavage on the surface as also a horizontal scar (when seen from top). It has a chiseling effect which enables cutting the borders without sacrificing the thickness.
6. Punching Technique:
It involves the use of an intermediate puncher which receives the blow on its top and transfers it the core through the other end. Such a method has the advantage of controlling both the magnet and direction of the force by manipulating the puncher by one hand while the force is be’ delivered by the other.
The pickings in Neolithic Celt preparation are done by this process. This method is quite useful in knocking off undesired corners or protuberances on rock surf without the risk of undesired damage to the tool.