For example, the principal of a school may send a message to the parents or to the government. The source is responsible for preparing, encoding and entering the message into the medium for transmission.
In institutional communication, the source is often the head of the institution giving directions to teachers, non-teaching staff or students.
It is the process in which the message is translated from an idea or thought into transmittable symbols. These symbols could be words, pictures, numbers, gestures, movements or sound. The message should be encoded in symbols in such a way that the source and the receiver attach the same meaning to it, i.e., the receiver can decode it correctly.
It is the process by which the symbols that carry the message are sent to the receiver. The medium is the channel or path of transmission. For example, in written communication, the medium is the paper; whereas in oral, face-to-face communication, the medium is sound waves.
Decoding is the process by which the receiver of the message interprets its meaning. The receiver uses his knowledge and experience to interpret the message or he may consult a dictionary, encyclopedia or higher authorities.
The receiver becomes active in the decoding phase. If the meaning of the message received is interpreted differently by the receiver, communication breaks down and misunderstanding can occur.
The receiver of the message may be an individual, group or institution. The receiver perceives the encoded symbols and may or may not decode them and try to understand the intended message.
It is the process in which the receiver returns a message to the source that indicates that the message has been received and understood. Feedback could be oral, written or non-verbal.
Noise is any disturbance in the communication process that interferes with or distorts communication.