Then, there are press releases that directly reach newspaper offices. They are either passed on to the reporters or handled by the desk depending on the discretion of the news editor.
Telephone also at times serves as a news source as somebody from the site of an accident may ring up a newspaper office and give a tip which would be later followed by reporters.
Besides these sources that are normally reflected in the byline or credit line, there are other classifications of news sources which find mention in the intro or body of the story and indicate from where or how the news has come to the reporter.
1. Press Release or Handout:
Signed or unsigned statement issued by a government department, civic body, political party, institution or organisation released to the press is called press release, press note, or press handouts.
2. Press Conference or Briefing:
A formal conference of pressmen invited by a dignitary in which after initial announcement he answers questions of newsmen. It is also called news conference.
Press briefing is similar to press conference in that newsmen are told something and they can ask questions. The difference is that briefing is done by spokesman who is authorised to make a statement and answer questions on behalf of a dignitary department, or party.
A prime minister holds a press conference, while a spokesman of the prime minister’s secretariat or a spokesman of the external affairs ministry briefs the press.
A party president addresses a press conference while a party general secretary briefs the press. But the president of the party may brief the press on the proceedings of national convention of the party.
Similarly, the prime minister may brief newsmen on proceedings of a summit conference or he may brief Indian newsmen travelling with him about what transpired between him and the head of the host state. Thus, though there is a very thin dividing line between them, press conference sounds more formal while briefing is less formal.
Interview is also growing an importance these days. More and more news items are based on interviews of dignitaries.
Sometimes even news agencies creed stories based on interviews which are to be published by some newspapers or magazines.
Legislatures and civic bodies when in session become major sources of news. When parliament is in session all government decisions are announced in parliament. Similar is the case of state legislatures and civic bodies.
All courts serve as source of news. Proceedings of various courts on important cases and important judgements by High Courts and the Supreme Court come in the news.
6. Conferences, Seminars and Symposia:
These are also sources of news depending on the subject and organisation involved.
Speeches in legislatures, in seminars and conferences, public meetings, diplomatic dinners and bodies like UN form a major source of news.
Official reports published by government and sometimes by other institutions also serve as source of news.
Besides, eye witness at the site of a crime or accident, police, hospital staff and district authorities also serve as sources of news. In international coverage UN and related bodies are also important news sources along with other government, political and nongovernment sources.