Its advantages are as follows:
(a) It is easy to manage.
(b) It is a systematic process and economic in terms of costs and time.
Its limitations are as follows:
(a) There is no provision for accelerated promotions.
(b) Even if a student fails in one subject, his entire year s wasted.
(c) Stagnation of students leads to inefficiency in term; of finances for parents, state and the institution.
(d) Students do not work regularly through-out the year since their promotion depends on their performance in the annual examination.
(e) Such a system measures only cognitive performance of students and encourages memory-oriented learning.
(2) Semi-annual Promotion:
This is an improvement over the annual system of promotions. Its advantages are: (i) to provide scope for accelerated progress to bright students and (ii) to evaluate students more frequently.
(3) Combined Promotion:
In this type of promotion, students’ performance in the unit-tests, terminal as well as annual examination is taken into consideration. This system forces students to be regular and consistent in their studies.
(4) Terminal Promotion:
Usually, students are promoted at the end of the year but under this system, gifted students are promoted after one term. Here, two thirds of the syllabus is covered in the first half of the year. However, it is possible that a bright student may finish his schooling too early but he/she is not yet socially and emotionally matures enough for higher education or employment.
(5) Double Promotion:
It means allowing a student to skip over a class. For example, a bright student, after passing fifth standard, may be allowed to attend seventh standard directly without going to the sixth standard. The competence of a student is decided by teachers on the basis of his/her performance in a test.
This system enables a gifted student to study at his/her own pace. However, at a later stage, such a student may face maladjustment on account of his/her interactions with older students if the student is too young or immature.
(6) Promotion by Subject:
According to this system, each subject has been graded into different courses such as Course A, Course B, Course C, etc. A pupil who is good in a particular subject may study Course C whereas ‘f he/she is weak in a particular subject he/she may study Course A in this subject.
Thus, he/she studies subjects in accordance with his/her performance m different subjects. It is possible that a student may be studying the subject of English at the Xth standard level while the subject of Mathematics at the VIIIth standard level at the same time.
There is no question of detention. However, such a system requires plenty of adjustments in curriculum, time-tabling and administrative process.
(7) Conditional Promotion:
Under this system, a student may be promoted to the next class on conditional basis, i.e., if he/she fails to make up his/her deficiency in a particular subject in which he/she is weak, he/she will be sent back to the original class.
This gives a second chance to a student to save one academic year and costs. However, such a chance is given to a student only if he/she fails in one or two subjects and not more than that and if his/her performance in these subjects is not too poor. This is a good remedy against stagnation. The system has been proved to be successful in the west.